Mosaic of Time and Story: Literary Discoveries on the History and Culture of Novi Bečej

Immerse yourself in the fascinating world of the past and culture of Novi Bečej through our virtual library, where the pages of books turn into windows through time. Here we discover the wealth of local heritage through complete works that bring stories of brave people, important events and unique traditions. Our book collection is not only a collection of words, but also the key to understanding the identity of this city, creating a space where historical events and cultural gems come together in a unique literary experience.

Town on the Tisa

Commemorative plaque marking the 900th anniversary of the first written document about our town, installed in the summer of 1991 on the walls of the town on the TisaThe town on the Tisa (the ruins of the fortress) is located about one kilometer northwest of the center of Novi Bečej. It lies on the left bank of the Tisa River between the 67th and 68th kilometers from the confluence of the Tisa River into the Danube. In fragments from the history of the Bečej fortress in 1991, Dr. Aleksandar Kaša wrote the following about the Bečej fortress: "Thanks to the meticulousness of engineer Kolet (Colett), we have preserved a description and plan of the Bečej fortress, which is now kept in the Kriks archive in Vienna, and which was rescued from oblivion by Rudolf Šmit, writing about this town. According to them, Bečej was a typical medieval water town." The fortress (town on the Tisa) was completely demolished in 1701 according to the decision of the Sremsko-Karlovac peace treaty of 1699.

Žarko Čiplić

Žarko Čiplić, a teacher, was born on March 27, 1887, in Stari Bečej. His father Jovan was a teacher, and his mother Sofija, born Gavrilović from Srpska Crnja, was a homemaker. He completed primary and secondary school in Stari Bečej, and teacher training school in Sombor. He graduated from teacher training school in 1908 as the top student of his class. Throughout his schooling at the Sombor Preparandija, he stood out with extraordinary musical talent — he had a beautiful voice (lyric baritone) and excelled at playing the violin. He also demonstrated a similar talent in painting, which was noted as early as elementary school.

The Great Revolt of 1848-1849

Peasant revolts hold a prominent place in the history of Hungary. Poverty and destitution, caused by constant increases in taxes and worsening living conditions, led Hungarian peasants to rebel against oppression even before 1848. Alongside the difficult situation of the peasants and the obstacles posed by the feudal state to the development of civil society (the bourgeoisie), a political crisis that engulfed almost all European countries from 1846 to 1848 contributed to the eruption of rebellion in Austria-Hungary.

Closing Words

Closing Words

I am quite certain that this was the final annual assembly of the Red Cross Society, as the pages of the minutes remained blank thereafter. Until when the Society carried out its humanitarian activities and when it disbanded, my previous research and knowledge have yet to find the right answer; but I have encountered the names of its members in the lists of Hungarian, Serbian, and Jewish women's associations, formed in the last years of the 19th century.

Publishing Activity, Libraries, and Reading Rooms

Publishing Activity, Libraries, and Reading Rooms

Novi Bečej had a very modest publishing activity, although it had people of high intellectual qualities quite early on. Such a situation may have contributed to them leaving Novi Bečej and creating in other larger cultural centers where they had more support and easier access to original materials.

Polet

Polet

"Polet" Istvan Vagner was the owner of the primitive brickyard in Turskobec until 1922. At that time, Mihajl Bon Jr. purchased the brickyard and gradually transformed it into a proper brick and tile factory. His father, Mihajl Bon Sr., the founder, established several brickyards in these areas. He founded a brickyard in Kikinda in 1866 and 1867, and in Zombolj in 1884.

After the Second World War, Bon's factory was named Toza Marković, and from the summer of 1947, under the name "Pollet," it successfully continued the production of bricks and tiles. In the 1960s, it expanded its product range with molds, blocks, and keramzit. In addition to the well-established and high-quality production of coarse ceramics, "Polet" established a factory for ceramic tiles in 1980.

Hydrography of the Region

The Novi Bečej subregion shares similar hydrographic characteristics with other municipalities in the Tisza River Valley. The hydrography of this region consists of surface and groundwater. Surface hydrography includes the Tisza River, a section of the Danube-Tisza-Danube Canal, and several larger ponds and lakes. Given the relatively high level of groundwater in most of the Novi Bečej municipality's territory, this work will specifically address groundwater.

What others saw and recorded about Novi Bečej in the nineteenth century

In addition to what Evliya Çelebi documented about the "Beautiful town of Bečej" during the Ottoman rule, it is interesting to read other assessments and impressions given about Novi Bečej in the mid-nineteenth century. From the 1840s, we have a description with data provided by Fenješ Elek and records from the Austrian traveler Kunič, who stayed in Novi Bečej in the second half of the nineteenth century. Ištvanfi Endre provided a description of life in Novi Bečej after the great uprising, almost until the end of the nineteenth century.

In the Geographical Dictionary of Hungary, Fenješ Elek writes about Novi Bečej:

Aleksandar Berić, Lieutenant of the First Class Battleship

Aleksandar Berić, Lieutenant of the First Class Battleship

Aleksandar Berić was born on June 13, 1906, in Novi Bečej. His father, Ivan Berić, was an accountant at the Vranjevačka Serbian Savings Bank in Novi Bečej, born in Stari Bečej, while his mother, Draga Dimitrijević, was a housewife from Subotica.
It is interesting to note that at the time of registration in the birth registry (June 13, 1906), the newborn was not given a name, but it was done later on July 1, when the father declared that the child would be named Šandor (Aleksandar).
Aleksandar Berić is among the few commanders in the April War (1941) of old Yugoslavia who did everything in their power to resist the enemy and not surrender anything to them, insisting that everything they conquered must be paid for with great sacrifices in manpower and material.

Footwear Industry

The footwear manufacturing company "Pobeda" in Novi Bečej dates back to 1947 when this work organization was established by craftsmen in Novi Bečej. Initially, this cooperative had around 35 different craftsmen, predominantly shoemakers, slipper makers, and traditional shoe craftsmen. After seven years of operation, this crafts cooperative was disbanded, and immediately after, a new footwear manufacturing company was established under the name "Pobeda" Novi Bečej (hereinafter referred to as "Pobeda"). In the beginning, the company had only 13 workers, including craftsmen, several semi-skilled workers, and apprentices. After another six years of operation, the collective of the crafts cooperative "Banat" was merged into "Pobeda" with all the basic assets and 12 employed workers. Thus, "Pobeda" acquired its final organizational structure with over 25 employed workers and the necessary basic assets.

Development project for the protection and presentation of Arača in function of sustainable development

Development project for the protection and presentation of Arača in function of sustainable development

The most significant cultural monument in the territory of the Municipality of Novi Bečej is the Arača Basilica, a cultural asset of exceptional importance for the Republic of Serbia, and of special significance for the Hungarian national minority.
Considering the significance and values of the Arača church, as well as the ancient settlement whose remains have been confirmed by archaeological research, the issue of site presentation is very significant and demanding. The realization of the project requires a multidisciplinary team and a longer time period.

Settling of Jews in Novi Bečej and Vranjevo

Jews have been present in Hungary since the time of the first kings, and more intensive settlements occurred after their expulsion from Bohemia and other countries in Western Europe during and before the Crusades. They not only found refuge in Hungary and Poland but also prospered significantly in these countries. This, of course, should not be misunderstood, as they faced various difficulties, perhaps similar to those experienced by Jews in other Central and Western European countries during that time. For instance, the Austrian authorities created difficulties for them when settling in Banat after the expulsion of the Turks or in places closer to the border.

The Revival of the Serbian Learned Society

The new beginning of the Serbian Learned Society is considered to be January 21, 1837, when at the assembly, Theodor Pavlovic was re-elected as the secretary. Among the numerous congratulations to Pavlovic for obtaining permission for the Society's work, Šafárik also expressed his joy about it, which pleased him greatly. However, he now faced numerous problems in securing material conditions for enhancing the Society's role in the cultural development of Serbs in Hungary. Here's what Pavlovic himself wrote about all this in Issue II of the Chronicle for 1841:

Theodor Pavlović and his indelible contribution to Serbian culture

There are few deserving Serbs who are as respected and celebrated during their lifetime as Theodore Pavlovic. But perhaps even fewer are those who are so quickly forgotten after death.

There are immortal creators whose works continuously remind us of their creators, such as books, paintings, sculptures, musical compositions, and more. However, there are also those creators whose works are immortal but do not remind generations of their creators, regardless of the greatness and significance of their works. Their creators fade away, mostly remaining unknown to younger generations, unless certain institutions, societies, or individuals organize reminders in the form of commemorations or any other form of manifestation to highlight their contribution.

The Great Migration of the Serbs in 1690

Following the defeat of the Turks near Vienna in 1683, their expulsion and the liberation of cities continued: Buda in 1686, Szeged in 1687, Belgrade in 1688, all the way to Niš, Priština, Peć, Prizren, and Skopje.

In the Battle of Kačanik in 1690, the Austrian army was defeated, and in their retreat, they abandoned all regions up to Niš. The Turks mercilessly punished the Christian population in the areas from which the Austrian army withdrew, accusing them of faithlessness during the Turkish retreat from these regions. News of Turkish cruelty quickly spread throughout Serbia, prompting people to flee northward. Serbs fled towards Belgrade and the Sava River, as the Turks held Temišvar and its surroundings, posing a threat to the entire left bank of the Danube in Banat.

Food Industry

Within the food industry of the Novi Bečej subregion, three economic organizations operate:

1. Mill "Vojvodina" in Novi Bečej,
2. Mill "Oslobođenje" in Novo Miloševo, and
3. "Mlekoprodukt" in Novi Bečej.

Geomorphic Characteristics

The relief of the Novi Bečej subregion is characterized by all elements common to the relief of northern Banat and the larger part of Vojvodina. Morphologically, the municipality's territory consists of lowlands, with an absolute elevation ranging from 86 to 76 meters. The lowlands gently slope towards the west, i.e., towards the Tisa River basin, and towards the south, in the direction of the Tisa's flow. Throughout the entire area, there are very uneven elevation parameters of the relief. The lowest parts of the territory, with an absolute elevation ranging from 76 to 77 meters, include areas such as Ljutovo, Biserno Ostrvo, Libe, Pustara, and Medenjača. These parts of the borders are differently distributed within the regional unit. Higher absolute elevations are observed in the northeastern, eastern, and southeastern parts, which are farther away from the current course of the Tisa River. The areas of Selište and Livade stand out with the highest elevation, including Bika Humka and Peskovita Humka, reaching an absolute height of 86 meters.

In the study of the relief of Vojvodina, especially northern Banat, Dr. Branislav Bukurov identified two main geomorphological forms in this area: the loess terrace and the alluvial plain.

Between 1919 and 1922

Between 1919 and 1922

After the signing of the armistice between the Allies and Germany on November 11, 1918, the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was proclaimed in Belgrade on December 1, incorporating Vojvodina. However, the official end of World War I is considered to be the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919.

Establishment of Tekelijanum

Establishment of Tekelijanum

The establishment of Tekelijanum, a foundation for the support of Serbian students and scholars, is considered "one of the greatest milestones in the history of Matica Srpska." These words mark the beginning of Chapter I. A GENERAL OVERVIEW AND CHARACTERISTICS of the book dedicated to the centenary of Matica "Matica srpska 1826-1926", which undoubtedly represents a realistic assessment.

In Pest, Tekelija, at the urging of Teodor Pavlović, founded the Tekelijanum foundation, where twelve students would have free accommodation and one hundred forints annually for maintenance.

Petar Sekulić

Petar Sekulić was a merchant of manufactured goods, as I have already described him. In his dealings with assistants, he infused humor and jokes, but above all, he prioritized hard work and a friendly approach to customers. Perhaps that friendliness was often superficial, but no customer dared to leave the store dissatisfied. Regardless of whether they would later realize at home that they were deceived, paid a high price, or received less than what they paid for, they had to leave the store feeling calm and satisfied. Any scenes a customer might create in the store would result in a loss of business, as other customers would leave the store just to avoid witnessing arguments.

Serbian Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas

Serbian Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas

According to historical sources known so far, several years have been suggested regarding the commencement of the construction work of the Novi Bečej temple and all of them are within the second half of the 18th century. According to the record on the church itself, it was built in 1774. While writing about the history of Novi Bečej and Vranjevo, Lazar Mečkić contests this year, citing data from multiple historical sources. The book of Dr. Jene Sentklarai The History of a Parish of the Čanada Diocese states that the current large church was built in 1786. Dimitrije Ruvarac in Schematism of Eastern Orthodox Serbian Metropolitanate of Karlovci (Sr. Karlovci, 1900) mentions the year 1794, while Dr. Samu Borowsky in Torontúl vármegye (Budapest, 1911), suggests 1796, but this date is connected with the description of Vranjevo.15

In the eve of the economic crisis

In the eve of the economic crisis

Novi Becej was a county seat. This county also included the villages of Vranjevo, Beodra, Dragutinovo (Beodra and Dragutinovo now form Novo Milosevo), Kumane, Melenci, Torda, and Taras. With an area of 812 km2 and a population of 48,449, the county ranked among the ten largest out of the total of 38 counties in the Danube Banovina. Initially, the Danube Banovina included not only the present-day Vojvodina but also the Croatian part of Srem and Baranja.

The villages belonging to the Novi Becej county were not only administratively connected but were primarily economically dependent on Novi Becej. Without such an economic hinterland, the vitality of Novi Becej at that time would be unimaginable.

Branch of the Red Cross in Turski Bečej in 1915.

Branch of the Red Cross in Turski Bečej in 1915.

Members of the Red Cross Association and the staff of the infirmary, dedicated to caring for the wounded and oblivious to the alternation of night and day, quietly entered the war in 1915. It began with three fatalities: Lajoš Kiš passed away on the 13th, Pal Sabadoš on the 14th, and Janoš Katona on February 22nd. The three were members of the team that built a bridge over the Tisa River in January and February. The first two were buried in the Turkish-Bečej Catholic cemetery, while the relatives of Katona Jožef transferred his mortal remains home.

Teodor Pavlović publishes the Serbian National Gazette and the Serbian National Newspaper

The prohibition of the Matica's work and the suspension of the Chronicle deeply affected Pavlović as a young patriot, full of energy, who had just begun his public work. He could not accept this prohibition because he was wholeheartedly connected to Serbian culture, and his patriotic consciousness felt what a great loss it would be, especially if it lasted for a long time. He was aware that the cessation of Matica's work and the discontinuation of the Chronicle created a significant void in the overall development of Serbian culture in Hungary. Therefore, he endeavored, until approval for Matica's work and the publication of the Chronicle was obtained, to take the opportunity to start publishing a newspaper aimed at the broader public, assuming that it would be easier to obtain approval for such a newspaper.

Location and Origin of the Place

Military topographic map of Novi Bečej with the surrounding countryside from the year 1883.Novi Bečej is situated in the central part of Vojvodina. Its territory encompasses the northwestern part of the central Banat. As it is built along the Tisa River, it belongs to the group of Pannonian settlements. The geographical center of the settlement is intersected by coordinates 45° 36' north latitude and 20° 9' east longitude. In other words, Novi Bečej is located 66 kilometers from the confluence of the Tisa River into the Danube.

According to the results of archaeological research in the current location of Novi Bečej and its immediate surroundings, settlements have been discovered dating back to 3000 years before the common era. The oldest and best-explored sites in this region are Borđoš to the southwest and Matejski Brod to the northeast of Novi Bečej. The distance of these sites from the present settlement is approximately 6 kilometers.

The first written mention of our place dates back to the year 1091. In a document written in Latin, among the settlements on the Tisa, Bechey is mentioned, where the Kuman tribe was defeated by the Hungarian army. In a deed of gift from the Hungarian king Béla IV in 1238, our place is mentioned as Willa Wechey. Also, as a fortified town, Castellanum Beche, it is mentioned in a document from the year 1342.

Servo Mihalj (1900-1941)

Servo Mihalj (1900-1941)

Servo Mihalj was one of the most prominent figures of the People's Liberation Struggle in the region of Banat. He was born in 1900 in Veliki Bečkerek into a working-class family. He worked as a laborer in a tailoring cooperative. At the age of twenty, he joined the trade union and shortly after, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY). He advocated for workers' rights, and he was arrested and beaten by the police several times.

Foreword

The love for my homeland has been within me, particularly emphasized since my earliest childhood. I have an unforgettable and painful memory when, at the age of fourteen (1931), I had to move from Novi Bečej to Zrenjanin (then Veliki Bečkerek) for my education. There, I lived with my sister and three other students, slightly older than me.

The first day of separation from home, from Novi Bečej, and all that was dear, somehow passed peacefully. However, when I lay down in the evening, much later than I did in my parental home, the night stretched on and became endless. I believe I had never experienced a longer night until then, or since. I tossed and turned in bed, got up several times to drink water, but sleep eluded me. Thoughts of the farm, where I grew up with my parents, of the Tisa River, of Gradište, of the places where I spent the most beautiful and unforgettable days of my youth, lingered until morning. I didn't close my eyes until dawn.

Old luxury and a forgotten story: Arača Church and a settlement near Novi Bečej

Old luxury and a forgotten story: Arača Church and a settlement near Novi Bečej

One of the oldest cultural monuments in this area are the ruins of the monumental church of Arača (located about twelve kilometers from Novi Bečej and Vranjevo in the northeast direction). It is believed that the preserved remains date back to the church built in 1228, but it was erected on the site where there was already a church between the ninth and eleventh centuries, as evidenced by fragments of decorative sculpture with motifs of triple braids.

The Time of German Occupation 1941–1944.

The Time of German Occupation 1941–1944.

During the German occupation (1941–1944), the Novi Becej postal administration was housed in the Lukseder family's residence located at the corner of Narodnog fronta and Marshal Tito streets. Since the Vranjevo post office was abolished, this one served the needs of the population of both Novi Becej and Vranjevo. Confirmation of this new, joint post office can be seen in letters from that period, where only the stamp "NOVI BEČEJ" is present at the receiving post office. This is also confirmed on a military topographic map (issued by the German military occupation authority) from 1943, where in the territory of Novi Becej and Vranjevo, only one building is marked as the Post Office, and that is precisely the Lukseder house.

Dudara - Part of Our Childhood

On the right side of the road leading from Kumane to Novi Becej, from Radnicka Street all the way to house number 41 on Lole Ribara Street, and about fifty meters from this street towards the railway track, there was a meadow planted with mulberry trees. This is how it got its name - Dudara.

Dudara was a charming meadow in this part of the town. In spring, when the grass turned green and the tree branches filled with leaves, Dudara became a gathering place for children and youth. Laughter and shouts from the children's games echoed in the air. Besides the joy and happiness of playing outdoors in Dudara, children took special pride in herding flocks of goslings to graze. They enjoyed watching the goslings nibbling on the lush green grass and laughed when a gosling struggled to pull a piece of grass, flipping over onto its back, only to struggle to get back on its feet. Alongside the children, the guardians of the goslings were geese who vigilantly ensured that no intruder from another flock would sneak in.

Matica srpska has become the most significant institution for the cultural and national transformation of Serbs

The Serbian Literary Cooperative, founded in 1826, later renamed Matica srpska, became the most significant institution for the cultural and national transformation of the Serbian people.

Even before Sava Tekelija, Jovan Nako, with the epithet Velikosemikluški, became in 1837 under the influence of Pavlović, a popular benefactor, by donating 5,000 forints in silver to Matica. Nako actually bequeathed this amount the same year when Matica renewed its work, but the actual transfer of that amount was made only after 7 years, in 1844. Due to the delayed transfer of funds, we considered, because he indeed was, Sava Tekelija as the first and greatest benefactor of Matica srpska.

Physical-Geographical Overview

A comprehensive geographical monograph of each subregion in Vojvodina encompasses natural-geographical and socio-geographical characteristics of a specific area. To better understand the emergence and economic development of the municipality of Novi Bečej, it is crucial to first acquaint ourselves with the physical-geographic features of this Vojvodina regional unit, representing the natural conditions for economic development.

From a natural standpoint, the territory of the Novi Bečej municipality essentially exhibits a Pannonian, flatland physical-geographic profile. Its relief, climatic, and hydrographic features share similarities with the natural-geographic traits of neighboring and other subregions in Vojvodina. However, through a more detailed analysis of all physical-geographic factors and elements, partial differences are observed. These differences can influence, positively or negatively, the development of specific economic sectors and overall economic progress. Therefore, this chapter will present the geomorphological, geological, climatic, hydrographic, bio-geographic, and pedological features of this part of the Vojvodina region.

Kharkov Institute (Russian Women's Gymnasium)

Kharkov Institute (Russian Women's Gymnasium)

After the October Revolution, in March 1920, the Kharkov Institute - Russian Secondary Women's School with a boarding school was established in Novi Bečej. By the decision of the Minister of Education of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia SN No. 11539, dated August 10, 1922, the Institute was raised to the level of an eight-grade women's gymnasium, with the right to a graduation exam according to the regulations applicable to secondary schools in Yugoslavia. The instructional language at the Institute was Russian. The Institute was managed by the State Commission of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia for Russian refugees. The Ministry of Education financed and supervised the Institute.

Planting, Harvesting and Threshing

Planting, Harvesting and Threshing

The sowing of wheat was largely done manually, to a significant extent. It was common to see a farmer in the field carrying an untied sack or bag of about ten kilograms of wheat. The sack was secured and slung around the neck and under the left or right armpit (depending on whether the person was right or left-handed). Using their hand, the farmer would scoop up the wheat and, taking a step at a time, evenly swing their arm to scatter the wheat across the plowed field. After sowing, a harrow was used to cover the seeds. The harrow was typically made of tied twigs, and in wealthier households, it could be made of steel wire with parts resembling blunt nails. Usually, two horses or oxen pulled the harrow. Following the harrowing, the horses were harnessed to a roller to press the soil, facilitating the normal germination of wheat.

The Launch of the Chronicles and the Establishment of Matica Srpska

The Launch of the Chronicles and the Establishment of Matica Srpska

The tightening of censorship and the implementation of other measures against Serbian books and writers hindered and accelerated, but did not prevent, the development of Serbian literature.
By the 1820s, the time of Jovan Rajić and Dositej Obradović had passed, and the influence of Milovan Vidaković had almost disappeared. Dimitrije Davidović began publishing the "Serbian Gazette" in Vienna, aiming to create an organ for the practical life of the Serbian people, but due to financial difficulties in publishing the newspaper, he soon had to move to Serbia.

Pearl Island

Pearl Island

In the 1830s, a young captain from Veszprém, Leopold Rohonci, met one of the three granddaughters of the Turkish-Bey ruling lord Pavel Hadžimihajlo, Klara Sisany, at a ball in Pozsony. From this acquaintance, a love was born that would lead Leopold Rohonci to Turkish Bečej.

Entering into marriage, Leopold Rohonci decided to settle in our town and dedicate himself to organizing the cultivation of the land, as Klara's dowry of 2,000 acres of land. He built a house at the present location of the cinema next to the Dolma. On his estate on Pearl Island, he erected a small castle with a wine cellar and stables for racing horses that successfully competed in Europe.

Catholic Church in Vranjevo

Catholic Church in Vranjevo

Catholics in Vranjevo did not have their own parish until 1880. They had a filial church that fell under the parish in Novi Bečej. They did not have churches, and they gathered for prayer in a prayer house located in the house of Feješ Janoš until the construction of the present-day Catholic Church in Vranjevo. Only in 1881 was a small church built on the site where the present-day parish of the Catholic Church stands. The building looked the same then as it does today.

Dynamics of ethnic structure: Analysis of changes in the population of the Municipality of Novi Bečej

The ethnic structure of the population in the municipality's territory is highly diverse. In this subregion, more than 12 different ethnic groups have been residing for a long time. In a brief historical overview of the settlement of this territory, it was emphasized that Serbs were the first settlers, and they have remained in this area to this day. Subsequently, Hungarians settled in several instances, followed by Germans and other ethnic groups. Greater ethnic diversity emerged only after World War II.

Commerce and Merchant Life in Vojvodina Throughout History: A Perspective on Development and Influences Until the 20th Century

Commerce and Merchant Life in Vojvodina Throughout History: A Perspective on Development and Influences Until the 20th Century

The nobility in Hungary considered it beneath their dignity to engage in trade, and the jobagyi (Hungarian serfs) were unable to do so, which resulted in the underdevelopment of commerce. In such conditions, it was understandable that the Serbs, who had the necessary means, soon took over the majority of trade.

Hospitality

Hospitality

Hospitality also represented a significant economic sector in Novi Bečej. In addition to about thirty tavern owners whose families depended on the income from this activity, there were also about twenty permanently employed workers (waiters, cooks, cleaners, etc.), and about twenty families had partial income from temporary employment in hospitality on Saturdays and Sundays. Approximately ten families of musicians also derived their livelihood from the earnings in hospitality, for whom music was the sole profession, and another thirty families considered music as a supplementary occupation or an additional source of income.

Graphic Industry

The graphic industry in the subregion of Novi Bečej consists of only one working organization, under the name Graphic Company "1st May" Novi Bečej. Its origin dates back to 1898 when the former bookseller from Novi Bečej, Giga Jovanović, alongside his bookstore, established a small printing house.

Living with Heritage

This year, the Days of European Heritage are celebrated under the auspices of the Ministry of Culture and Information in the Government of the Republic of Serbia, for the fifteenth, jubilee time. The common theme of the event at the European level, chosen by the Council of Europe, "Cultural Heritage and Communities - Living with Heritage," is based on the principles of the Council of Europe Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society, known as the Faro Convention, adopted in 2005 with the aim of achieving greater unity among the member states of the Council of Europe in the preservation and enhancement of the concept of cultural heritage.

Planned Settlements and Living Conditions

Vast open spaces of land covered by wetlands, meadows, and forests, coupled with low population density and the significant personal insecurity of the Banat region's inhabitants under the Ottoman rule, led the people of Banat to adopt a sort of nomadic lifestyle. This was particularly true for those engaged in agriculture. To facilitate easier relocation and settling in new areas, people constructed huts and sheds made of wattle and reed, earthen dwellings, and similar structures that could be easily abandoned and, with minimal effort, rebuilt elsewhere. The desire to return to a previous location did not arise because settlement in a particular area had a temporary character until the land or pasture was utilized. This way of life persisted until the mid-eighteenth century.

Preface

Through years of collaboration between the Institute of Geography at the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in Novi Sad and the Self-Governing Interest Community for Scientific Work of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, the creation of geographical monographs for the municipalities of Vojvodina is realized. This significant endeavor is undertaken by a team of geographers and scientific researchers from Vojvodina. Each study provides an overview of the natural characteristics and economy of a specific municipality. The geographical monograph of Novi Bečej represents a modest contribution to this series of scientific works, which will have a manifold significance upon the completion of the entire project, i.e., after processing all the municipalities in our Province.

Rebellion of Peasants in Novi Bečej

Rebellion of Peasants in Novi Bečej

The position of peasants (serfs) in Novi Bečej was even more difficult than in Vranjevo, within the District. The cruel behavior and merciless exploitation by the Novi Bečej nobleman Hadžimihajlo-Sisani triggered the peasants to seek a solution to their troubles through rebellion.

In 1788, the nobleman confiscated the land from 155 peasants, replacing it with another on the desolate Berek. The majority of peasants (143) refused to accept and cultivate the land on Berek, forcing the nobleman to return their original land.

Illuminating Forgotten Paths - Monograph 'Teodor Pavlović - Life and Work' by Lazar Meckic

Illuminating Forgotten Paths - Monograph 'Teodor Pavlović - Life and Work' by Lazar Meckic

Lazar Mečkić, a scholarly figure by nature, deeply dedicated to the history of his native region, with this book, dispels the gloom and shadows, resurrecting many details about Teodor Pavlović, the renovator of Matica Srpska, a publicist, and an editor of significant Serbian periodicals.

Novi Bečej and Vranjevo after the expulsion of the Turks from Banat

Not much time passed after the conclusion of the Karlowitz Peace when a new war erupted between Austria and Turkey (1714–1718). In this war, the Austrians liberated Banat, the eastern part of Srem, captured Belgrade on August 15, 1717, and then took control of areas south of the Danube and Sava rivers, all the way to Niš.

Through the peace treaty signed in Požarevac on July 21, 1718, between Austria, the Republic of Venice, on one side, and Turkey, on the other, Banat and the entire Srem, along with the cities—Belgrade, Šabac, Bjeljina, Brčko, and in southern Serbia up to Paraćin, were ceded to Austria.

Interior

Interior

The layout of the rooms is functional and adapted to the needs of a middle-class family. It exudes warmth and comfort. From the central entrance hall (foyer), one enters the living (reception) room, the girls' (bachelor's) room, and the kitchen. A manually operated bell in the corner of the hall served to announce the entry of guests or to summon the servants. There is also a fireplace for heating adjacent rooms. The kitchen is connected to the hall by narrow, single-winged wooden doors and a small opening in the wall with metal doors that opened as needed, serving as a counter through which the servants would serve. In the kitchen, there is an open chimney and a brick stove for food preparation. The servants' room, an extension of the kitchen, faces the side street. To the right of the living room, facing the main street, is the bedroom, and to the left is the study. The bedroom is connected to the girls' (bachelor's) room, which has a built-in stove.

Allocation of Land to Individual Families

As previously emphasized, the land in Banat belonged to the emperor, who granted it as an inheritance. The eldest son inherited the land, compensating his brothers with 3/4 of the redemption value. The land ownership was divided based on the size of the family, consisting of whole, half, and quarter sessions. According to Kempele's plan, a whole session in Banat amounted to 37 acres, including 24 acres of arable land, one acre of garden and yard, 6 acres of meadows, and six acres of hillocks, totaling 37 acres or "lanacs" (the local term). A half session comprised 21 acres (lanacs) arranged as 12—1—4—4 acres, while a quarter session had 13 acres arranged as 6—1—3—3.

Roma in Novi Becej and Vranjevo

Roma are of Asian origin, and their ancient homeland is believed to be India, from which they left between the ninth and eleventh centuries. Before arriving in Europe, they lingered in Persia, Asia Minor, and Syria. They entered Europe during the fourteenth century: some through North Africa to Spain, and others through Asia Minor to the Balkans. They appeared in Crete in 1322, in Corfu in 1346, in Wallachia in 1370, in Zagreb in 1378, in Hungary and Germany in 1417. From Europe, they spread to other continents.