Theodore Pavlovic - Life, Work, and Legacy: The Complete Story of the Serbian Intellectual

In the depths of Serbian history, Theodore Pavlovic stands as a pillar of intellectual richness and national dedication. His life, intertwined with the strength of character and deep love for his people, tells a story of relentless effort and commitment that guided him through all challenges and obstacles. Born at a time when the Serbian people were seeking their identity, Pavlovic emerged as a prominent member of society, recognized for his exceptional talent and leadership abilities.

Teodor Pavlović publishes the Serbian National Gazette and the Serbian National Newspaper

The prohibition of the Matica's work and the suspension of the Chronicle deeply affected Pavlović as a young patriot, full of energy, who had just begun his public work. He could not accept this prohibition because he was wholeheartedly connected to Serbian culture, and his patriotic consciousness felt what a great loss it would be, especially if it lasted for a long time. He was aware that the cessation of Matica's work and the discontinuation of the Chronicle created a significant void in the overall development of Serbian culture in Hungary. Therefore, he endeavored, until approval for Matica's work and the publication of the Chronicle was obtained, to take the opportunity to start publishing a newspaper aimed at the broader public, assuming that it would be easier to obtain approval for such a newspaper.

Besides submitting an appeal against the prohibition of Matica's work and the Chronicle and persistently working to obtain the permit, he also applied for permission to publish a newspaper for which he assumed it would be easier to convince the authorities compared to the Chronicle.

His opponents seized every opportunity to discredit him among the people, thus also highlighting his publication of the Serbian National Newspaper as if he had contributed to the prohibition of Matica and the Chronicle, so that he could publish his own newspaper!

To launch a newspaper in the Serbian language, regardless of its content, required, at that time, a lot of perseverance, skill, and ingenuity, which Pavlović possessed. Even though he used these qualities to the fullest, it was not possible to obtain the necessary approval quickly. He waited for months for the permit. This was a time when, as Dr. Subotić says, "Hungarianization in Hungary was already taking place, and thoughts were emerging about how and in what way it would be easiest to achieve the Magyarization of non-Hungarian peoples. Whoever read the public newspapers of that time would recall what was written about this..."

Despite Pavlović enjoying a good reputation not only among Serbs but also among prominent Hungarians, the authorities were still suspicious and very strict about such an endeavor. Until the authorities collected data about his life and work and whether he was loyal to the dynasty and state administration, the permit was not issued. Only when all this was collected did the authorities issue the permit with the condition that the newspaper would have no connection with politics and would write about entirely naive matters.

The Serbian National Gazette, as he named his newspaper, was intended for a broader readership to raise awareness about the beautiful, good, and useful. This means that Pavlović did not intend to publish a scientific review but an educational one that should connect science with the broadest circle of readers. Tekelija criticized him precisely for this when he learned about his intention. He told him that more literate people among the Serbs knew German and preferred to read newspapers in German rather than in their mother tongue. That it was a great delusion to hope that the Gazette would be bought and read by the part of the Serbian people Pavlović was counting on.

Pavlović's Serbian National Gazette was published three years after the appearance of the first review newspaper of such a character in Western Europe. In March 1832, the first issue of an illustrated magazine in the world was published in London under the name MAGAZINE OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE, which soon gained the more popular name PENNY MAGAZINE. It quickly gained a large number of readers, which, with its large circulation and relatively cheap printing and illustration technique, enabled it to become affordable, and with its light content, it gained great popularity. This was an incentive for similar magazines to be published on the European continent.

In Paris, two such newspapers were launched in 1833, and in Leipzig, PFENNIG MAGAZIN began to be published, which had a noticeable influence on the launch of similar newspapers in Central Europe. Leipzig publishers quickly came up with the idea to reproduce illustrations for Pfennig Magazin and similar newspapers that would be published in other languages and in other countries.

Thus, thanks, among other things, to these illustrations, a magazine in Hungarian named GARASOS TÁR (Penny Magazine) was launched. Unfortunately, this magazine did not find a broad readership, so it ceased publication after only 12 issues on March 22, 1834. In the same month, when Garasos Tár stopped being published, another Hungarian entertainment magazine, FILLER TÁR, appeared in Bratislava on March 1, 1834. On the same day, the first issue of a Czech-language magazine called SVETOZAR, initiated by Jozef Šafarik, was released. Šafarik named his magazine Svetozar because it is not a typical Czech name, aiming to emphasize the broader content of the magazine with a global perspective. Unfortunately, Svetozar also did not last long, ceasing publication in its second year. Neither of them was revived.

By mentioning these penny magazines, we wanted to highlight the similarity in fate that would befall the Serbian National Newspaper a year later. Simultaneously, we also wanted to emphasize how much effort and sacrifice Pavlović invested to ensure that the Serbian people did not lag behind others.

Perhaps Pavlović was premature in publishing the Serbian National Newspaper, as Tekelija warned him, but this also proves how in tune he was with European cultural events and how well he understood social and cultural conditions, especially the state of European journalism.

The first issue of the Serbian National Newspaper appeared in Pest on July 13, 1835. It was published once a week. Reader response was weak from the first issue, so Pavlović pleaded and begged readers to support the newspaper by purchasing it.

"Help, Brothers! Does no one realize that without an oar, one cannot row; without wings, one cannot fly; without means, no goal can be achieved; without money, such a publication cannot be issued?"

Despite all these pleas, there were few readers. He soon exhausted his resources and had to stop publishing the newspaper. Before he would cease publication at the end of December 1835, he appealed to Tekelija for help, requesting 1,000 forints. Although he enjoyed Tekelija's favor, the latter was not easily convinced to help. Tekelija had already warned Pavlović when he announced the launch of the Serbian National Newspaper that he would quickly "fall into the mire." Due to his stance on this venture, Tekelija delayed offering help. Only after Pavlović repeated his plea in December 1835 did Tekelija respond, but he only sent the requested money in March 1836. He wrote that at that moment, he was willing to contribute that much for his beloved Serbian people. It was too late, however, as the Serbian National Newspaper had ceased publication in December 1835.

At the beginning of January 1837, while settling his financial situation, Pavlović more systematically approached the re-publication of the Serbian National Newspaper, especially concerning subscriptions.

Like Šafarik in Svetozar, Pavlović also hinted at a panslavistic orientation in the Serbian National Newspaper from the first issue, emphasizing the Serbian orientation in the introductory poem to somewhat mitigate the highlighted panslavism:

"Go, my dear paper, (I am sorry that I cannot go with you.) Go among Slavs from hand to hand, Be it a Russian, a Croat, or a Pole, Czech or Slovak, Serb or Bulgarian, Be it a Sorb (Serb) in Lower Lusatia, Or a Silesian, or a Moravian, Whether he is Russian or a Krajnian. Tell everyone my heartfelt greetings, They are all brothers from the same mother, From Slavia, the most glorious Mother. And, dear paper, boast and take pride That there is no other paper like you in the world. Eighty million call themselves your own and can understand you. But from the dearest brothers: Greet my Serb three times, Serbian mothers and Serbian sisters. By God and holy Sava, Swear to them, let each of them, When cradling a young Serb, Instill in him love for God, and for the Emperor and the Nation! To the learned, incline, learned paper! Go to the unlearned, instill in them A taste for good, and beautiful and holy, And what is useful - teach them."

The content of the Newspaper speaks of its purpose: to instill in the unlearned knowledge of what is good and beautiful, holy and useful. This means that its initial desire was to publish an educational journal.

Besides the problem of readers and subscribers, Pavlović had great difficulties involving Serbian writers and intellectuals in cooperation. In the 13th issue of the Newspaper, dated October 21, 1837, he pointed out that, except for one collaborator, Konstantin Mihailović, he prepared and edited the publication himself. Here is his call for cooperation published in the same 13th issue:

"I have not, to my regret, been to Belgrade yet, and those who have been among the Serbian writers, I do not know anyone who has described Belgrade yet. Thus, all our affairs are described by others, foreigners, and as they know, mostly inadequately, and we merely copy from them — (!!!). Let this circumstance be attributed by benevolent readers, if this description of Belgrade, translated from German, is found lacking."

Although the Serbs had several well-known writers at that time, they did not respond to calls for cooperation in the Serbian National Newspaper.

The Newspaper was the first illustrated magazine published in Pest, as Garasos Tár was published in Leipzig. Therefore, it was not easy or quick to obtain the necessary illustrations. Pavlović had to ensure the timely provision of illustrations from Leipzig, Paris, or London, besides what could be produced in Pest. In those major printing centers, illustrations were made by lithography, but given the then transport conditions, it would take 3-4 weeks for woodcuts and molds to arrive from Leipzig. Therefore, he tried to solve this problem in Pest. He said about this: "Finally, luckily, I found a man here in town and turned a stonemason into a woodcarver..."

Delivering the Newspaper to readers was no less a problem. Sending it by mail was expensive, so Pavlović delivered it whenever an opportunity arose to send it by someone, which meant significant delays. He wrote about this in the last issue of the Newspaper for 1835:

"Due to the very low subscription price and the small number of subscribers, the Newspaper could not be sent by mail. Indeed, the number of subscribers increased later when the Newspaper gained traction and many liked it, but considering the substantial costs necessary for publishing the Newspaper, it was still insufficient. Therefore, the Newspaper had to be sent when opportunities arose. Sometimes such opportunities were not available for a week or two, meaning that the paper often had to wait ready here. From here, it was sent to someone who was known to the task, whether or not he was involved in such work, to forward it further, and so from a priest to a blacksmith, the paper might be delayed in each place for an unknown duration. In this manner, by the time the paper reached Belgrade via Segedin, Great Kikinda, Temisvar, Vršac, or via Baja, Novi Sad, Zemun to Pančevo, or via Subotica, Sombor, Osijek, Bjelovar to Zagreb, or via Zagreb and Karlstadt to Rijeka, often 5-6 weeks would pass without readers receiving the paper, even though it had been prepared and sent from me, and although I had paid for the dispatch. Smaller and remote places and villages also had to wait due to the mentioned obstacles, especially since there were usually fewer opportunities from here and from the mentioned main towns."

All the difficulties that stood in the way of publishing the Serbian National Gazette were, each on its own, hard to overcome, and any one of them could have been a reason to stop the publication. Financial difficulties alone were enough of a reason, and if we add the procurement of clichés and illustrations, the method of delivering the gazette to readers, the small number of readers, and on top of all that, publishing and editing it, practically without any collaborators! Only an enthusiast could withstand such challenges for the good of his people, someone who, when it comes to the well-being of the people, doesn't know about struggles and difficulties. Such a person was Pavlović.

The Serbian National Gazette, like similar publications in Hungarian, was largely edited by taking material from other newspapers and publications. Materials from foreign reviews were mostly translated. The practice of using other people's writings was especially prevalent in the first year of the Serbian National Gazette's publication, as Pavlović was without collaborators.

The Hungarian Fillértár was similar in content to the Serbian National Gazette, and they often exchanged articles. These publications contained a lot of material (articles) on natural sciences, historical topics, descriptions of various countries, regions, and cities, portraits and biographies of notable personalities, etc. Perhaps the only noticeable difference was that the Gazette had more illustrations and a distinctly Slavic or Serbian character.

The readership was the main prerequisite for a popular content newspaper, which served to educate and enlighten the people. Unfortunately, neither the Serbian nor the Hungarian publications had this. This comparison might seem bold since Pest had already developed into a genuine economic and cultural center at that time, and other Hungarian cities were also developing and forming their bourgeois class, thus creating a readership, but all this was insufficient for the publication of such a newspaper.

Their publication can be seen more as the ambition and patriotism of enterprising individuals ready to make all sacrifices and endure all difficulties for their people, rather than a consequence of growing social needs. Therefore, when Pavlović restarted the Serbian National Gazette, instead of the penny-magazine content, he gave it a new profile, bringing it closer to a literary journal.

The first issue of the renewed Gazette was published on January 1/13, 1837, and from then on it was regularly issued once a week until the Great Uprising, or more precisely until May 1848.

In the Gazette, there were fewer translated articles, indicating an increase in the number of collaborators. It remained illustrated, as it was in its initial publication.

The change in the character of the Gazette was also enabled by the gathering of prominent collaborators. Thus, by 1838, the following were noted as collaborators: Jovan Pačić, Sima Milutinović-Sarajlija, Petar Petrović-Njegoš, Jovan Sterija Popović, and others. Thanks to them and Pavlović's efforts, primarily, the Serbian National Gazette would become a distinctly literary journal in the 1840s. More space was dedicated to important cultural events. However, despite all efforts, the uncertainty of its publication was always present. Neither the increase in volume, the nicer external appearance, nor the enriched content helped, and the price remained unchanged. The number of subscribers remained similar to the earlier, just enough to enable the publication of the Gazette. Nonetheless, despite the modest number of subscribers, it cannot be denied that the Serbian National Gazette significantly contributed to the slow formation of a readership.

Marko Maletin, in his study "TEODOR PAVLOVIĆ," criticized the Gazette for being a naive "penny magazine" in its early years, edited without plan, selection, and criticism. Besides the general and insignificant topics that, according to him, burdened the Gazette, there were many poems of dubious value, often odes to individuals who were not historically "great individuals, but benefactors and dignitaries" who helped his ventures with their gifts or authority.

Although we mentioned in the previous chapter that this was Pavlović's wish to encourage others to follow their example and that it was a form of control—a public insight into the funds Matica had at its disposal, we must state that according to Maletin, during the rise of national romanticism and the development of Serbian culture, it was unnecessary to glorify benefactors. It was clear to everyone that without their sacrifices and benefactions, such development would not have had nearly the dimensions and intensity it achieved precisely through these donations and foundations. Shouldn't their humane deeds be appreciated and thus encourage others, but also repay them, even in such an economical way? They, like all living people, wanted their deeds to be highlighted and to outlive them.

For that first period of the Serbian National List, Dr. Đorđe Živаnоvić gives a completely different assessment. He says that it only seems at first glance that the content of the List is uneven and diverse. There's a lot of everything, mostly news and advice for work, lessons from zoology, botany, a bit of history, a little of everything. But despite this unevenness, he argues that Pavlović knew what he wanted. He had a predetermined plan and program, but he didn't dare to highlight it too publicly. His program was Slavic, rich and diverse, but it needed to be glimpsed, almost discovered. Then it would be clearly seen that Pavlović did everything according to a preconceived plan. The plan for the educational part of the List was expressed publicly, while the Slavic content was subtly woven into the basic content to avoid censorship noticing what the List actually offers to readers.

For that year, before the appearance of Letopis, the Serbian National List was full of contributions that were concealed among a plethora of other content. The first issue of the List has, for our literary experts, much greater significance than might be immediately apparent, and it is precisely in this that Pavlović's greatness lies.

The Serbian National List and newspapers of this kind laid the foundations for journalistic style. Their task was: enlightening and educating the readers. They presented historical topics, biographies of famous people, about unknown regions, exotic plants and animals, and so on, in a popular manner. "The first years of the life of S. N. List were almost nothing else but an organ for popularizing botany and zoology while the rest of the content lacked a plan, selection, and criticism," says Maletin. It seems that Maletin gave this sharp, even ruthless assessment because he didn't properly understand the profile of the penny magazine.

A scientific conference held at the Serbian Learned Society on May 22 and 23, 1986, on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the appearance of the Serbian National List, gave a true assessment of the role of the List in the development of Serbian society, and thus the Serbian Learned Society paid tribute to its most prominent member and refuted the assessments of Marko Maletin. Academician Vasilije Krestić expressed his judgment in the introductory speech at this conference when he emphasized that the thirties and forties of the last century, during which the decisive word in the public life of the Serbs was held by the church hierarchy, and that Serbian civil society only began a sharp and protracted struggle with Pavlović at the helm, with which they "pushed the clergy from the socio-political, national, and cultural stage."

At that scientific conference held at the Serbian Learned Society on May 22 and 23, 1986, in his paper, Lazar Čurčić stated that the Serbian National List represents the beginning of Serbian journalistic efforts, and he summarized his judgment on Pavlović in a few beautiful sentences. That Pavlović, as a diligent and exceptionally systematic person, took great care not to do anything that could harm the Serbian Learned Society, Letopis, or Serbian spiritual life in general. That the List was intended for broader readership because he believed that through good newspapers, the nation could emerge from cultural backwardness.

Seeing that Hungarian newspapers, which served as his model, also had their supplements in political newspapers, he decided to start a political newspaper.

There were proposals for the Serbian Learned Society to publish political newspapers, to which Pavlović, like other members of the Serbian Learned Society with more realistic views, energetically opposed. He did not want the Serbian Learned Society to be exposed to responsibility before the authorities, which is difficult to avoid in journalism despite the greatest care and the most loyal intentions.

Knowing with what distrust the authorities viewed publishers of political newspapers, he took on that role himself, to be their publisher. In his request for permission to publish the newspaper, he emphasized that he would strictly adhere to what the censorship approves and that he would mainly transmit what the censorship mostly passes from newspapers that already have legal permission.

In the spring of 1838, Pavlović obtained permission to publish Serbian National Newspapers, as he called his new newspaper, under the conditions stated in his request. The authorities ordered him to publish only those news items that had already been published in the Wiener Zeitung, Oesterreichischer Beobachter, and the Bratislava Hironok.

Immediately after obtaining permission, Pavlović began work on the first issue by collecting subscribers and announced that Serbian National Newspapers would be published twice a week from June onwards.

Despite all the caution and loyalty to the authorities, readers once noticed that from the 4th issue of 1842, the word "Serbian" was missing from the front page, only "National Newspapers" remained. This omission was not accidental, readers became convinced when it was omitted throughout that year.

With his perseverance, Pavlović managed to obtain permission to return the word "Serbian," which, according to his explanation in numbers 1 and 2 for the year 1843, was abolished for political reasons. It is interesting to read his explanation of why he fought to return that word to the title of the Newspaper:

"Serbian National Newspapers and List. Serbian thus! as it is natural, just, and beautiful, and as we love Serbian, they will be called Serbian again and be our National Newspapers! Perhaps someone sees childish joy in this, because of which this resurrection of the name is emphasized, but I cannot hide it, I would give my life for it, no matter what others thought and said about it. This so small word Serbian would say that it is full of such fame, such importance! When storms rise from clear skies, and this world of ours is glorious to us. Serbian with which we most lovingly glorified our Lists, it seemed as if they killed us in the head. History shuffled us, pride was taken away from us, so we mourned for him so sensibly, as much as we saw, perceived, and noticed in him and strangers themselves. If that name disappeared everywhere, we would suddenly and in our own home in Illyria and in even worse what turned into, from the totality of Serbhood, we separated and - God knows what would happen to us... I - to whom, so to speak, this precious thing was torn from my hands, and to whom all increasingly marked unhappy consequences for the nearest and blackest eyes fell, never had truly more painful hours than in those days. And so I swore from the depth of my soul to never stop until this dear treasure, "national name," is returned to us. And if there is any reward for printing, I feel a more abundant reward for myself and my effort about this difficult task, and if there is joy now when you, dear people, return the national name and with this new adornment of our National Newspapers, I announce. But who wants enemies to deny us that sanctuary? Who is the grace, who will restore it? The enemy better not have names - just let him know that a stranger is not - and the benefactor is in this one the general father who everywhere and to all his faithful sons generously and constantly bestows..."

In order to further illuminate the name of the Serbian people, Pavlović emphasized the inscription above the gate, amidst one of the main and liveliest streets of Pest: EDITORSHIP SERBIAN NATIONAL NEWSPAPER, which - as he says - was sometimes attacked by mischievous Hungarian youth and suffered, but again shone brighter and brighter until 1848.

The content of the newspaper's sections looked like this: right below the title, on the first page, there was a section "Hungaria" or "Hungaria and Erdelj" in which news from those countries was published. If there were no significant news from those regions for certain issues, then "Austria" would take its place. Behind this section were news from other countries, whose order depended on their proximity to Hungary. After this political part, there were "Laughter" sections containing sensational events, phenomena that did not fall within the realm of normal life, articles about technical achievements, information about cultural life, etc. Following the "Laughter" section were reports on currency exchange rates, market prices in Pest, the water level of the Danube, and finally advertisements: various announcements, reports, and more.

For three years, Pavlović adhered to these regulations, knowing that any change in direction in relation to the prescribed could jeopardize the newspaper's continued publication. As a good connoisseur of circumstances, and now as an experienced editor and publisher of newspapers, he avoided any disputes with censorship. He avoided writing about issues that should not be discussed, emphasizing his unlimited loyalty to the emperor, the imperial family, and the court, as well as to the government and high-ranking individuals. It could be said that the newspapers were infused with sentiments he sought to convey to his compatriots. This should not be understood as flattery to the authorities but rather as characteristic of the time when Serbs were both patriots, and such behavior was typical of the absolutist era.

A significant turning point for the Serbian National Newspapers occurred at the end of 1840 and during 1841 when more liberal censorship rules were introduced, thereby limiting the severity and arbitrariness of censorship. Pavlović used this more tolerant attitude towards newspaper publishers to request from the Administration to expand his rights, as under the existing conditions, he was almost unable to publish the newspapers. By pointing out to the authorities that there was significant competition, not only from newspapers in foreign languages but especially from newspapers published in Belgrade, he argued that if his publications were stopped, Serbian readers would turn to Belgrade newspapers. He requested approval for a new program that would allow him to publish original daily reports and articles of political content, as well as to use news and excerpts of similar character from other newspapers, ensuring not to violate the regulations and rules of the new censorship. The authorities approved his requests, and he began restructuring the newspapers accordingly.

Thanks to this expanded content, which was more related to Serbs than before, Serbian National List and Serbian National Newspapers had barely 600 subscribers together in 1842, which was just enough for the publisher to persist in the work he did with so much love. The level of Serbian National Newspapers improved with more activity from correspondents from the interior and especially with the introduction of an introductory article, which the editor began publishing from the 77th issue in 1842. Earlier, the exaggerated loyalty to the state gradually disappeared, giving way to freer thoughts.

The direction of Pavlović's newspapers' development was greatly influenced by Hungarian newspapers: Košut's Pesti Hirlap (Pest Herald), Világ (World), and Sečenji's Jelenkor (Present). At that time, these were solid Hungarian newspapers and they served as a model for Pavlović. He either fully adopted articles or excerpts from Pesti Hirlap and Világ until 1845. This influence was so present that one could feel the flow of Hungarian political life. After 1845, he gradually distanced himself from Košut because he found his rebellious intentions foreign. A representative of Serbian privileged politics - writes Jakov Ignjatović - could not accept the ideas of a fervent Hungarian nationalist and revolutionary like Košut. Especially since Košut's aim was not the equality of all nations living in Hungary, but exclusively the affirmation of the Hungarian nation he favored.

No matter how loyal a subject of Hungary Pavlović was, he did not want to subordinate the interests of Serbs to foreign national interests, especially not those expressed in Košut's political program.

Pavlović was familiar with the circumstances and the level of journalism in France, England, not to mention Germany, Austria, and Hungary, as well as their influence on the socio-political and spiritual conditions of those countries. Because of this, he tried to gather around his newspapers not only beginner students and notable collaborators from the ranks of Serbian writers but also to create conditions for changing the content and character of his newspapers. He succeeded to a considerable extent, but despite all that, the number of subscribers did not increase, remaining just enough for the newspapers to be published, with constant apprehension about how long they would continue to be published.

Pavlović addressed the readers in the Serbian national newspaper on December 31, 1841, emphasizing that with this issue, this year's publication of Novine i Lista is coming to a close, and as always, upon the end of each year, they worry about their further publication, wondering whether it will continue into the next year. Due to the indifferent attitude of the readers towards the newspapers, he wrote the following:

"And thus, we see that among the most glorious and distinguished nations, literature plays the leading role, that literature, politics, journals, and various newspapers constitute an independent, I would say, power in the state, and with considerable force, when often called upon, they defend and support the homeland and the nation before the entire world, and indeed every, and precisely every, well before the whole world they nourish and defend and strongly promote it. Therefore, we see in France, in England, in North American and other similar countries that after the supreme power and national representation, the third hand that holds the reins of government, is the hand of printing, and individual political newspapers, which each one rushes to maintain in its power and strength, whole societies agree and thus publish 5-6 newspapers, and there is no dream or action, no person who would not read newspapers... not to mention that even the Turkish government, for its necessity, has found newspapers for itself and for its people. All that aside, let's see what our compatriots, the Hungarians, are doing? They are doing an unheard-of miracle - with twenty and letters twenty large grains of tobacco per week, they only publish and read political newspapers... This, Ladies and Gentlemen, is not a joke! - And we cannot agree to establish even one newspaper. And it's not that we can't, it's just that we won't in cold-blooded indifference. Besides indifference to reading, there is also something else that prevents us from reading - we have to pay 5 florins! This is no joke! And I am a poor priest, a poor professor, a teacher, a poor official, etc. And are Lutheran and Calvinist priests and chaplains, teachers and professors, and officials richer than us? Not at all, but these people have the conscience that every preacher and professor would rather eat three times blacker bread and wear three times worse clothes himself and all in his household than be without newspapers. Are you poor? Then that's exactly why you should read newspapers, perhaps you'll learn in hardship and trouble how others help themselves. Can't we agree to maintain this national legacy? Oh, the sadness, what will we do when it's not enough to maintain it ourselves, but it's an indescribable necessity to multiply power and force of activity, to help it, to grow its wings for flight into the heights and expanses of the world. This legacy urgently needs all the means, the great objectives of a whole national body, a national defender. Let complaints be made on all sides, let there be people obliged to guard everything for our benefit, to observe not only, but also to firmly express in writing, to have an effective agent who will watch what all the newspapers say about us, and to our benefit in the same newspapers and their language, they should speak the word, so that there would not be, on the side of newspapers, all kinds of talk about us, about literature, language, church, about our people, all sorts of things, all to our detriment, etc. Can all this be achieved with just one poorly paid assistant? Shouldn't instead of taking away from the poor priest, the poor teacher, and the poor student, so to speak, from their own pockets, we provide each of the mentioned, who cannot pay, with free newspapers and List and Letopis and every book, and all this can be done, only when all those who can, subscribe and increase the number of subscriptions. Oh, the great troubles of ours, which are only trouble, and so great, that we don't all contribute with small contributions, which would help ourselves and the general things and bring benefit and honor to the whole tribe."

For these words - Lazar Čurčić writes - No one has ever spoken about the significance of journalism and its mission in the world to the extent that he has. Pavlović's experience in journalism at the end of 1841 was not so long, but it was significant and valuable enough for him to speak responsibly and confidently about it.

Despite all the difficulties Pavlović faced regarding subscribers, collaborators, printing conditions, and distribution of newspapers, his struggle with the all-powerful Serbian ecclesiastical hierarchy was no less of a problem.

In his newspapers, Pavlović highlighted problems that he believed were of national interest and presented them to the people, even though they had previously fallen exclusively within the competence of the church, criticizing the work of high dignitaries. In the interest of the faster progress of the Serbian people, from purely enlightenment motives, he did what his teacher Dositej Obradović did in his time, and what Miletic did after the fall of Bach's absolutism, who can be considered a true follower of Teodor Pavlović in the fight against the hierarchy over the issue of ecclesiastical-school autonomy.

In this fight, Metropolitan Rajacic materially helped in forming the new newspaper in the Serbian language, SKOROTEČA, which appeared two months before he was elected as a metropolitan. This literary-entertainment newspaper expressed political views opposite to those of Pavlović from its first issue, which was fundamentally the main reason for its establishment. The owner and publisher of Skoroteča nominally was Dimitrije Jovanović, while the real bearer of the list was Evgenije Đurković, already a well-known lawyer from Pest and supreme supervisor of Serbian national schools. This newspaper was not a worthy rival to Pavlović's newspapers, as seen from the number of subscribers, as despite all efforts, the clergy and school authorities had only 182 subscribers in 1842. As it was printed in 400 copies, its publishers incurred losses, for just one half-year, of 599 forints, "which Rajacic and Đurković divided, but more for the former than the latter".

Regarding subscription, the situation was no better in the following year, so it "lived" and ceased publication on July 17, 1844.

Skoroteča mercilessly defamed Pavlović and his newspapers, especially since he received Vuk's supporters and supporters of the Illyrian movement by his side. Although he did not agree with either of them, even had distinctly opposite views, now they were useful to him in the fight against the common enemy. Thus, their desire to destroy Pavlović, or his newspapers, united them. Later, Jovan Hadžić also joined Rajacic and Đurković.

Pavlović not only faced difficulties in promoting the enlightenment of the Serbian people by gaining readers, but also, at the request of Rajacic and Đurović, church and school authorities banned, in their territories, subscriptions to the Serbian National Newspaper and Serbian National Newspapers. This was a kind of obstacle to increasing the number of subscribers to Pavlović's newspapers and contributing to the faster enlightenment of the Serbian people in Hungary.

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