Diversity and Wealth of the Municipality of Novi Bečej: Geographic Monograph with Overview of Natural Characteristics, Population, Economy, and Settlements

Explore the deeply rooted natural charms and economic potentials of the Municipality of Novi Bečej through a comprehensive geographical monograph. Familiarize yourself with fascinating aspects of the terrain, geology, climate, water bodies, flora, and fauna, while simultaneously delving into vibrant settlements and diverse industries. This informative book provides valuable insights into the richness of this unique Vojvodina region, offering a broad spectrum of information useful for education, regional planning, and preserving local identity.

Hydrography of the Region

The Novi Bečej subregion shares similar hydrographic characteristics with other municipalities in the Tisza River Valley. The hydrography of this region consists of surface and groundwater. Surface hydrography includes the Tisza River, a section of the Danube-Tisza-Danube Canal, and several larger ponds and lakes. Given the relatively high level of groundwater in most of the Novi Bečej municipality's territory, this work will specifically address groundwater.

Surface Waters Tisza River The Tisza River, with a length of 44 km, constitutes the largest natural hydrographic feature in the Novi Bečej municipality. It flows mainly north to south, passing through or along the municipality's territory. Of this, 6 km pass by the Novo Miloševo boundary, 35.2 km through the Novi Bečej boundary, and 2.8 km along the Kumane boundary.

The Tisza is rich in water, containing about 1/6 of the total water volume that the Danube carries to the Black Sea, despite having a relatively small number of tributaries. The total average water volume delivered by this river to the Danube in one year is around 31.40 km3.

The riverbed slope varies along its length. The total slope over the entire course is 1,536 meters, with an average of 1.57 m/km. In Yugoslavia, the total slope of the Tisza is 4.68 meters, with an average of 0.28 m/km. Within the Novi Bečej municipality, the total slope of the riverbed is 1.32 meters, with an average of about 0.030 m/km.

The depth and width of the river vary due to different water levels. In the Novi Bečej area, at the lowest recorded water level of -256 cm (October 19-22, 1947), the depth of the Tisza ranged from 3.04 to 6.64 m. At zero water level, depths ranged from 5.6 to 9.2 m. At a water level of +200 cm, the depth ranged from 7.6 to 11.2 m. At +400 cm, the depth increased further, ranging from 9.6 to 13.2 m. At the highest recorded water level of +785 cm (June 2-3, 1970), depths were measured from 13.45 to 17.05 m.

The width of the Tisza in the Novi Bečej area also varies. At the lowest recorded water level of -256 cm (October 19-22, 1947), the width ranged from 126 to 134 m. At zero water level (0.0 cm), the width ranged from 150 to 158 m. At a water level of +200 cm, the width increased to 170 to 180 m. At a water level of 400 cm, widths of 184 to 200 m were measured. During the highest recorded water level of +785 cm (June 2-3, 1970), downstream from the former ferry, widths ranged from 480 to 540 m. At the location of the former ferry crossing, the width ranged from 576 to 720 m, reaching its maximum width in this part of the course - 3,600 to 4,180 m.

The water level of the river fluctuates, affecting the river's characteristics. The lowest water levels in this part of the Tisza were recorded in 1892 - 167 cm, 1895 - 115 cm, 1904 - 164 cm, 1921 - 203 cm, and 1946 - 202 cm. The lowest water level in this part of the Tisza was recorded on October 19, 1947, at 256 cm.

High water levels have also reached extreme values several times, causing the Tisza to overflow its banks and flood large areas of arable land and parts of certain settlements. The most significant flood years were: 1919, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1932, 1937, 1940, 1941, and 1942. The highest recorded water level on the Tisza at Novi Bečej was +785 cm (June 2-3, 1970).

The water level varies by month throughout the year. The highest values, or maximum, are reached in April due to snowmelt in the upper river areas. The minimum water level occurs in October, reflecting the summer dry period.

The flow rate of the Tisza in the Novi Bečej subregion is variable. The minimum velocity is 1.40 km/h, the maximum is 5.00 km/h, and the optimal is 3.60 km/h. The flow rate is influenced by different factors, including the slope of the riverbed, cross-sectional area, and riverbed roughness.

The entire Tisza River, including its Novi Bečej subregion segment, is an important natural resource and plays a crucial role in the life of the local population. It provides water for agricultural irrigation, supports diverse ecosystems, and facilitates transportation.

Danube-Tisza-Danube Canal

The Danube-Tisza-Danube Canal, with a length of 20 km, also flows through the Novi Bečej municipality. This canal connects the Danube River and the Tisza River, providing a navigable route between the two. It plays a vital role in regional transportation and water management.

Ponds and Lakes The Novi Bečej municipality is home to several larger ponds and lakes. These water bodies contribute to the overall hydrography of the region, providing habitats for various aquatic species and serving recreational purposes.

Groundwater

Groundwater is a critical component of the hydrography in the Novi Bečej subregion. The groundwater system is influenced by geological and hydrogeological conditions, including the presence of aquifers and the permeability of rocks.

The Novi Bečej area is characterized by a predominance of unconsolidated sediments, such as alluvial deposits, which contribute to the formation of aquifers. These aquifers store and transmit groundwater, making them important for the local water supply.

The depth of the groundwater table varies across the Novi Bečej municipality. It is influenced by factors such as precipitation, land use, and geological conditions. The groundwater level is typically higher in areas adjacent to rivers and canals, where recharge from surface water is significant.

The quality of groundwater is essential for various uses, including drinking water supply and agricultural irrigation. Monitoring and managing groundwater quality are crucial to ensure the sustainable use of this vital resource.

In summary, the hydrography of the Novi Bečej subregion is characterized by significant surface water bodies, including the Tisza River and the Danube-Tisza-Danube Canal. Additionally, the presence of ponds and lakes contributes to the overall aquatic landscape. Groundwater, influenced by geological conditions, plays a crucial role in supporting various human activities, emphasizing the need for sustainable water management practices in the region.

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