Diversity and Wealth of the Municipality of Novi Bečej: Geographic Monograph with Overview of Natural Characteristics, Population, Economy, and Settlements

Explore the deeply rooted natural charms and economic potentials of the Municipality of Novi Bečej through a comprehensive geographical monograph. Familiarize yourself with fascinating aspects of the terrain, geology, climate, water bodies, flora, and fauna, while simultaneously delving into vibrant settlements and diverse industries. This informative book provides valuable insights into the richness of this unique Vojvodina region, offering a broad spectrum of information useful for education, regional planning, and preserving local identity.

Geological Composition

In geological and petrographic terms, the Novi Becej subregion is highly intriguing. We have already highlighted that the loess terrace is fundamentally composed of terrestrial—typical, re-deposited, and marsh loess. In delving deeper into this geomorphological entity, we emphasized that the material of the loess terrace accumulates on both dry and moist marshy soils, resulting in a mixture of terrestrial and marsh fauna in subaerial, fluvial, and marshy materials. The geological foundation of this area, besides loess, consists of fine-grained spatters and clays. Therefore, from a geological perspective, this region consists of diverse clays, sands, and loess sandy deposits, predominantly from the Quaternary era.

The flat part and depressions are composed of Pleistocene and Holocene deposits. The former are older, mostly of aeolian origin, while the latter are younger, formed by the action of running water. In certain places in the Novi Becej subregion, lake sediments are represented. These sediments consist of sand and clay. Diluvial and alluvial deposits are characteristic of the entire Potisje, including the territory of the municipality of Novi Becej. These deposits consist of sand and loess. By analyzing the geological map, we observe that loess clays and marsh loess cover about 90% of the territory of the municipality of Novi Becej. In the belt around the Tisa riverbed, in the alluvial plain, sandy shoals and sandy clays are characteristic. In the narrow belt around the river, there is a representation of river deposits of variable composition. These deposits are composed of gravel, sand, and mud. In the old parts of the former riverbed, in dead arms, swamps, and marshes, mud and sand are mainly represented. In the loess area of the narrower and wider territory, salt marshes are sporadically widespread. In preparation for the construction of the Danube—Tisa—Danube hydrosystem, numerous geological studies were conducted, covering the territory of the Novi Becej subregion. Based on these results, a geological profile Novi Becej — Jankov Most was created. This profile, compared to the previous one, has a comparative direction. In addition to the mentioned studies, the geological composition was determined during drilling tests conducted by "Hydrosonda" from Novi Sad and "Komergran" from Belgrade. The first tests were conducted to find the most favorable location for drilling artesian wells, and the second to drain the internal waters of the IGK "Polet" clay pit in Novi Becej. The data from the first group of drilling tests were diligently collected by geography teacher Radoslav Stojšin and made available to the author. According to this data, layers of clayey and sandy sediments alternate in depths. Thanks to the alternation of impermeable and permeable layers, there are several water horizons of different qualities. Counting the topographic surface as the zero meter, based on these studies, the following geological composition was determined by depths:

  1. No layering by depth up to 58 meters was specifically core-drilled because artesian wells supply water from greater depths. However, loessoid clay, clay mixed with sands, and a colorful series of clays were noticed here. In the clayey layer mixed with sand, the alternation of dark and brown zones was determined. This once again confirmed that the upper geological mass was created in different climatic conditions. Dark zones were formed during warmer and moister climates when the plant and animal life was more developed, leaving traces in the geological layers. Brown zones were formed in colder and drier climatic conditions when plant and animal life was poorer, and the effects of aeolian erosion and sedimentation were very pronounced.
  2. From 53 meters to 85 meters, a layer of gray fine-grained sand is represented.
  3. From 85 meters to 92.8 meters, a layer of gray sandy clay extends.
  4. From 92.8 meters to 103.7 meters, a layer of gray-blue clay is found. Layers of this clay, as the cover and base, alternate with sandy aquifers to around 276 meters deep. Based on 40 boreholes in the clay pit of the Building Ceramics Industry "Polet" in Novi Becej, the geological composition of the terrain at depths up to 30 meters was more precisely determined. According to the results of these drilling tests, the geological composition in the vertical profile is as follows: 0 — 0.6 meters — humus layer; 0.6 — 3.0 meters — a component loess phase, which includes layers of loess and loessoid clay; 3.0 — 10.0 meters — a colorful clayey series, which includes several clayey-sandy layers of yellow and blue colors; 10.0 — 18.0 meters — blue-gray-green clayey-sandy series, which includes sandy clays and pure sands; 18.0 — 21.0 meters — clayey series of variously colored clays, which include sandy and occasionally plastic clays; 21.0 — 27.0 meters — blue-gray-green and sandy series; 27.0 — 30.0 meters — a layer of gray-blue and pure blue plastic clay. In summary, it can be emphasized that in the geological composition of the terrain, up to 30 meters deep, sands and clays dominate, of different colors and different powers of water resistance and permeability.

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