Diversity and Wealth of the Municipality of Novi Bečej: Geographic Monograph with Overview of Natural Characteristics, Population, Economy, and Settlements

Explore the deeply rooted natural charms and economic potentials of the Municipality of Novi Bečej through a comprehensive geographical monograph. Familiarize yourself with fascinating aspects of the terrain, geology, climate, water bodies, flora, and fauna, while simultaneously delving into vibrant settlements and diverse industries. This informative book provides valuable insights into the richness of this unique Vojvodina region, offering a broad spectrum of information useful for education, regional planning, and preserving local identity.

Flora and Fauna

The plant life of the Novi Bečej subregion exhibits basic characteristics of the Pannonian steppe vegetation, with distinct features of the vegetation in the Banat region. Natural vegetation in the majority of this area has been replaced by cultivated crops. Over 90% of the areas covered by the original steppe vegetation have been plowed and converted into arable land. Typical natural vegetation with indigenous plants persists along roadsides, in various depressions, on saline surfaces, in marshes and swamps, and in certain parts of the alluvial plain and loess terraces.

The natural conditions for the distribution of plant and animal life are not uniform throughout the entire subregion. They are influenced by various geomorphological forms, hydrographic features, and different geological and pedological compositions. These factors have led to partial variations in the distribution of plant and animal life, noticeable between certain parts of the loess terrace and the alluvial plain of the Tisza River. In the past, these differences were more pronounced, whereas today these two biogeographic surfaces cannot be distinctly separated as two significantly different entities with a sharp boundary.

Forests are widespread in the alluvial plain of the Tisza, on both sides of the river, around oxbow lakes, swamps, and marshes, along the canal network, in the surrounding areas of settlements, and around farmsteads. Poplar and willow forest belts are prevalent in coastal areas of the Tisza and its abandoned meanders, as well as around lakes, swamps, and canals. Poplar and locust tree forests are planted around settlements, while farmsteads feature locust, ash, and maple trees.

Forests serve multiple purposes for the municipality of Novi Bečej. From a natural-geographical perspective, they act as climate modifiers, natural filters, and air purifiers, as well as protective barriers against wind. Forests provide a suitable habitat for various wildlife species, contributing to the development of hunting in the region. The most significant economic importance of forests lies in the exploitation of timber, used as the primary raw material in the timber industry. The use of branches and stumps as firewood is also not negligible.

In abandoned river meanders and branches, or in oxbow lakes, hydrophilic vegetation is present. Among these plant species, the characteristic ones include white and yellow water lilies, water caltrop, reeds, sedges, and more. Typical marsh vegetation is found in lakes and swamps in this area, consisting of bulrush, sedges, club-rush, cattail, reeds, and others.

Slaty surfaces are almost entirely uncultivated, maintaining a characteristic steppe nature with low diverse grasses and weed plants. The occasional lushness of these otherwise poor pastures is influenced by the amount and distribution of precipitation. The productive significance of such areas is very low.

In the dry, higher parts of the alluvial plain and on the loess terrace, natural spontaneous vegetation occurs sporadically. It is found along roadsides and partially on arable land. Important representatives of this vegetation include mugwort, thistle, nettle, wild oats, mustard, dandelion, wormwood, sedges, and more.

Cultivated crops on the loess terrace include grains, primarily wheat, corn, barley, and oats, followed by industrial crops (sugar beets, sunflowers, tobacco, industrial peppers, poppy), forage crops, and smaller areas of orchards and vineyards. In the wetter alluvial plain, the presence of so-called wet crops is more significant. Corn and barley are the most cultivated grains, sugar beets and sunflowers among industrial crops, alfalfa among forage and fodder plants, and vegetables such as potatoes, peppers, beans, and peas. Larger areas are characterized by orchards, vineyards, and vegetable gardens.

The types and distribution of the animal kingdom in the Novi Bečej subregion also exhibit broader characteristics of Vojvodina, especially in the Banat region. In terms of game, the municipality is home to rodents (field mice, ground squirrels, hamsters, pheasants, wild ducks, and geese), quails, partridges, pigeons, and others. Besides game, there are rodents (field mice, ground squirrels, hamsters, rats), as well as other animals like hedgehogs and raccoons, and birds such as sparrows, swallows, crows, larks, owls, and storks. Amphibians and reptiles constitute the animal life of standing water and its immediate surroundings. The Tisza River and its canals host fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. Among the fish, various species of whitefish, carp, catfish, pike, and white amur are the most abundant.

Related Articles