Diversity and Wealth of the Municipality of Novi Bečej: Geographic Monograph with Overview of Natural Characteristics, Population, Economy, and Settlements

Explore the deeply rooted natural charms and economic potentials of the Municipality of Novi Bečej through a comprehensive geographical monograph. Familiarize yourself with fascinating aspects of the terrain, geology, climate, water bodies, flora, and fauna, while simultaneously delving into vibrant settlements and diverse industries. This informative book provides valuable insights into the richness of this unique Vojvodina region, offering a broad spectrum of information useful for education, regional planning, and preserving local identity.

Climate Conditions

The Novi Becej subregion, as part of the broader Vojvodina region, is located in the area of a temperate continental climate. The insignificant range of geographic latitude between the northernmost and southernmost points in Vojvodina, within 2°, and the evenness of the terrain, have resulted in minimal microclimatic differences between individual subregions. The orotopographic structure of the Pannonian Plain, mostly surrounded by mountain massifs, has influenced the formation of the basic climatic characteristics of Vojvodina. The openness of the Vojvodina region to the north and west has allowed for stronger influences of air currents and weather changes from these directions. Therefore, the climate of this region has a more continental character than expected based on its general geographical position.

On the broader Vojvodina territory, there are significant annual, monthly, and daily temperature fluctuations. The distribution of precipitation throughout the year is uneven. The variability of soil temperature, air humidity, cloudiness, sunshine, wind occurrences, and wind strength is also characteristic. By the influence of all these mentioned climate elements and their various manifestations, climatic regions have been formed in certain parts of Vojvodina. They have specific climatic characteristics and specificities. According to agroclimatic regionalization conducted by Dr. Pavle Katic from the Faculty of Agriculture in Novi Sad with other collaborators, Vojvodina is divided into 10 agroclimatic regions. The Novi Becej subregion, for the most part, belongs to the fourth agroclimatic region, namely the northern Banat region. The northern and eastern boundaries of this region are formed by the state border with Hungary and Romania. The western boundary is the Tisa River, and the southern boundary is the canal from Novi Becej to the Kikinda canal, part of the Kikinda canal to the Old Begej canal, and the Old Begej canal to the state border with Romania. With this division, the southern part of the Novi Becej municipality territory belongs to the agroclimatic region of central Banat. Thanks to this division, data from meteorological stations in Kikinda and Zrenjanin will be used for a more detailed analysis of certain climate elements. Data from meteorological stations in Potisje, specifically in Becej and Senta, will also be used for certain climate elements.

Air Temperature

Within the climate characteristics of the region, special attention is paid to air temperatures and precipitation, as they are the most significant climatic elements in any agricultural area. Based on data from the mentioned meteorological stations, the average value of mean annual air temperatures from 1967 to 1977 was 10.9°C. The coldest year in this period was 1974, with an average annual air temperature of 10.3°C, and the warmest was 1968, with 11.5°C.

Detailed consideration of temperature conditions is facilitated by data from the Kikinda meteorological station, as it pertains to the fourth agroclimatic region, which largely belongs to the Novi Becej municipality.

The coldest month of the year is January, with an average monthly air temperature of -1.5°C. Compared to Vojvodina, where this value is -1.2°C, there is a difference of -0.3°C. This difference is primarily caused by the geographical position of the Kikinda and Novi Becej subregions. The northeastern areas of Vojvodina are closer to the Carpathians and the Eurasian continent, from which cold air masses penetrate our territory during winter. Additionally, these parts of Vojvodina are more influenced by cold air masses that enter our territory from the north.

In accordance with the temperature characteristics of Vojvodina, the warmest month in this agroclimatic region is July. The average July air temperature in the region is 21.6°C, and for the whole of Vojvodina, it is 21.4°C, which is a very small difference of only 0.2°C.

Minimal differences in the average monthly values of air temperature between the studied area and Vojvodina as a whole have resulted in almost complete alignment of these areas' air temperature values throughout the seasons. The mean air temperature values in the fourth agroclimatic region are completely aligned during spring and summer, while minimal differences are observed during autumn and winter. In line with relatively balanced average monthly values, the average annual air temperature is approximately the same. In the studied region, this value is 10.9°C, and for the whole of Vojvodina, it is 11.0°C.

Relative air temperatures also show very small differences. The displayed values of average monthly air temperatures have already indicated a significant uneven distribution of heat throughout the months. This unevenness is reflected in the asymmetry of the annual course of relative air temperatures. In Vojvodina as a whole and in the studied area, there is a slow increase in relative air temperatures in spring, which peaks in July. The gradual decrease in relative air temperatures starts in August, reaching the minimum in January. This asymmetry of temperature fluctuations is more expressed in the fourth agroclimatic region, compared to Vojvodina as a whole. This is primarily because of the influence of cold air masses, characteristic for this region.

The trend of changes in relative air temperatures from 1967 to 1977 shows a slow decrease in temperature values during the observed period, which corresponds to the period of intensive cooling in the northern hemisphere. The decrease is particularly evident in autumn and winter, while the relative air temperatures in spring and summer change very little. Although the mentioned period of the late 1960s and early 1970s was characterized by a slower increase in air temperatures, compared to the previous decades, it did not cause any major changes in the climatic characteristics of this region.

Precipitation

Precipitation is another important climatic element. In the Novi Becej subregion, it is characterized by a significant amount of precipitation throughout the year. The average annual amount of precipitation, recorded from 1967 to 1977, is 624.4 mm. During this period, the wettest year was 1970, with 757.2 mm of precipitation, and the driest was 1968, with 503.7 mm. The values of the total annual amount of precipitation for the observed period indicate a sufficient water supply in the soil for crop production. The distribution of precipitation throughout the year is uneven. The driest months are February and March, with average values of 35.8 mm and 40.7 mm, respectively. The amount of precipitation gradually increases, reaching its peak in June, with an average monthly value of 66.3 mm. After June, there is a gradual decrease in the amount of precipitation, with the driest month being February.

Soil Temperature

Another important element in the study of climatic conditions is soil temperature. Soil temperature affects the germination of seeds, vegetation, and the general development of crops. The determination of soil temperature is based on the air temperature characteristics of the given region, as well as on other climatic factors. In the Novi Becej subregion, soil temperatures are higher than air temperatures in all seasons, except for winter. The average annual soil temperature, based on data from meteorological stations in Kikinda and Zrenjanin, is 11.9°C. The highest monthly average soil temperature is recorded in July, with 23.4°C, and the lowest in January, with 0.8°C. The recorded values of average monthly soil temperatures for the Novi Becej subregion are higher than the values for Vojvodina as a whole, except for January, when the values are equal.

Wind Characteristics

Wind characteristics also play a significant role in climatic conditions. The direction and strength of the wind influence air and soil temperatures, as well as the distribution of precipitation. In the Novi Becej subregion, the dominant wind direction is northwest. The average annual wind speed, based on data from meteorological stations in Kikinda and Zrenjanin, is 2.6 m/s. The strongest winds occur in January, with an average monthly speed of 3.4 m/s, while the weakest winds occur in July, with a speed of 2.0 m/s.

Sunshine Duration

Sunshine duration is an important climatic factor that affects plant growth and development. In the Novi Becej subregion, the average annual sunshine duration, based on data from meteorological stations in Kikinda and Zrenjanin, is 2,073 hours. The sunniest month is July, with an average monthly duration of 291 hours, while the least sunny month is December, with 64 hours.

Conclusion

The Novi Becej subregion, located in the northern part of Vojvodina, experiences a temperate continental climate. The climate is characterized by significant temperature fluctuations throughout the year, with colder winters influenced by air masses from the Carpathians and the Eurasian continent. The summers are warm, with July being the warmest month. Precipitation is relatively evenly distributed throughout the year, with the wettest month being June. Soil temperatures in the subregion are generally higher than air temperatures, except for the winter months. The dominant wind direction is northwest, and the average annual wind speed is 2.6 m/s. Sunshine duration is an important factor for plant growth, with the sunniest month being July.

These climate conditions, along with other factors such as soil type, topography, and water availability, play a crucial role in shaping the agricultural practices and productivity of the Novi Becej subregion. Understanding the local climate is essential for sustainable and efficient agricultural management in the area.

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